About Nepal

Nepal is a small country located in South Central Asia. It has a current population of just under 29 million people (Nepal Population, 2016) and has an area of 147,181 km² (Nationsonline.org, 2016). The capital city of Nepal is Kathmandu. The official language in Nepal is called Nepali. Nepal can be divided up into three different ecological zones: the highland, midland, and lowland(Nationsonline.org, 2016). Nepal also has 8 of the 14 highest summits in the world (Nationsonline.org, 2016). The steep terrain can make it very hard for farmers to find a suitable place to farm crops. This is why most of the farming takes place in the lowland region. About 64% of Nepal’s population is employed in the forestry/agriculture field (Kästle, 2016). This accounts for 34% of Nepal’s annual GDP (Kästle, 2016). As you can see agriculture is a hug part of Nepal and there is always room for improvement.

What is Barricade?

Barricade ll is a herbicide that is produced by DuPont (Raise the Bar, 2016). Barricade ll is produced/distributed in Mississauga Ontario at E.I. du Pont Canada Company. There are many different types of Barricade herbicide but the one that will be focused on in this paper is Barricade ll. The reason why this chemical is more fitting in Nepal than other chemicals is because they are used for weed control in wheat. Barricade ll is a selective herbicide which means that it will only kill certain plants (How do selective herbicides work, 2015). In the case of the Barricade it selectively kills at least 22 different broad leaf weed species (Base,2016). It also includes 4 ingredients from Groups 2 and 4 (Base, 2016). Based off of this information Table 1 can be used to see that Barricade targets the ALS enzyme (acetolactate synthase) and Auxin mimics. ALS or the acetolactate synthase enzyme is a catalyst that is used by plants that need to use the amino acids eucine, isoleucine and valine and without these essential amino acids the plant will die. (Cellular Absorption of Herbicides, 2016). Wheat is considered a cereal plant. Barricade does not kill cereal plants but will kill the weeds that maybe be growing in between them (Base, 2016). This is why Barricade  is a perfect herbicide to be used for weed control in wheat fields.

Table 1: Herbicide Groups 

Target site Active Ingredient Product Names
Group 1

 

ACCase

(grass herbicides)

 

Clethodim Select
Clodinofop Horizon
Diclofop Hoegrass, Hoegrass II*
Fenoxaprop Fusion, Laser, Laser DF*, Puma,

Triumph Plus*

Fluazifop Fusion, Venture
Quizalofop Assure
Sethoxydim Achieve, Achieve Extra*
Tralkoxydim Poast, Poast Flaxmax*
Group 2

 

ALS

 

Ethametsulfuron Muster
Imazamethoabenz Assert
Imazamethapyr Pursuit
Metsulfuron Ally
Thifensulfuron Laser DF, Refine Extra*,

Triumph Plus*

Triasulfuron Amber, Unity*
Tribenuron Express, Refine Extra*
Group 3 Cell division

 

Ethalfurlain Edge
Trifluralin Advance, Fortress,

Rival, Treflan

Group 4 Auxin mimics

 

2,4-D 2,4-D, Attain*, Champion Plus*, Dycleer*,

Estaprop*, Thumper*, Tordon 202C*,

Turboprop*

2,4-DB Caliber, Cobutox, Embutox
2,4-DP Diphenoprop, Estaprop
Clopyralid Lontrel, Prevail*, Curtail*,

Poast Flaxmax*

Dicamba Banvel, DyVel, DyVel DS,

Target

Fluroxpyr Attain*
MCPA MCPA, Achieve Extra*, Buctril M*,

Cahmpion Plus*, Dyvel*, Laser*,

Laser DF*, Mirage*, Poast Flaxmax*,

Stampede CM*, Target*, Triumph Plus*,

Tropotox*

MCPB Tropotox*
Mecoprop Mecoprop, Compitox
Picloram Tordon
Group 5 PSII inhibitor Cyanazine Bladex, Blagal
Metribuzin Crossfire*, Lexone, Sencor
Group 6 PSII inhibitor Bromoxynil Achieve Extra*, Buctril M*, Hoe-Grass II*,

Laser, Torch/Pardner, Unity*

Group 7 PSII inhibitor Linuron Afolan, Lorex
Group 8 More than one target Triallate Avadex BW, Avenge Fortress
Ungrouped Each are ungrouped

and unrelated

Glyphosate Laredo, Renegade, Roundup, Rustler,

Touchdown, Wrangler

Bentazon Basagran
EPTC Eptam

(Martin, 2004)

Benefits to Nepal

Nepal will benefit in many ways by importing Barricade ll into the country. The first one being less labour intensive work will be required by the farmer because he/she will not have to walk through the field and pick all the weeds by hand weekly. All they will have to do is use the backpack sprayer to spray down the crop once and the field will remain weed free for the rest of the crops life. Another benefit to Nepal is its increased revenue (as shown under the cost subheading). The farmers will produce more grain which results in the farmer receiving more money per growing season. The last way that importing herbicides into Nepal will benefit is it will result in there being more food for the citizens of Nepal. About 32.5% of Nepal’s population are living under the poverty line (Nepal, 2016). Therefore, Nepal is a very poor country and a lot of the citizen’s money goes towards buying food for their families (Nepal, 2016). If Nepalese farmers are able to produce more grain then ever before by using Barricade ll it would help to bring down the cost of food for the citizens because there would no longer be as great of a demand for wheat in Nepal (Prasad, 2011). As a result the citizens of Nepal would not have to spend as much money on food and they would have more money left over to do other things such as renovations to their homes.

Benefits to Canada

By exporting Barricade ll to Nepal it would result in plenty of beneficial outcomes in Canada. The first one being an increase in jobs. When the amount of Barricade ll went up the plant would need to hire more people to help with the increase in demand. Jobs would also be created in the transportation part of the exporting process. There would be more work for truck drivers and the ship yard workers. Another way that Canada would benefit from exporting Barricade ll is that it would bring money in to the economy which can help out huge. Lastly it would help to improve Canadas export stats.

Machinery Requirements and Cost

The preferred way of application here in Canada and North America is odiously using a large sprayer that is either pulled by a tractor or self-propelled. In Nepal having one of these huge sprayers is obviously not practical because of the steep terrain, large cost, and small fields. Instead of these big sprayers there is an alternate option. Backpack sprayers are not only the most practical way of spraying the field but also the much cheaper option and are already a common tool for small farmers, such as farmers in Nepal. Backpack sprayers run on average about 100 Canadian Dollars and can be used to apply the herbicide to the crop. It only takes one person to use the backpack sprayer so it is not like employees will need to be hired by the farmer which helps to cut down on cost. Another essential piece of equipment is safety equipment to protect the person applying the herbicide from the harsh chemicals. Safety equipment that is required is gloves, a respirator, googles, rubber boots, and coveralls. All of these items can be purchased not at too high of a cost. After using the equipment, it will have to be either thrown out or properly cleaned. This will assume the farmer does not come into contact with the chemical and he/she will remain unharmed. If the farmer was did come into contact with the chemical it could cause them to experience mild symptoms that may include nausea and headaches, rashes or more dangerous symptoms, such as convulsions and seizures, and even death (Gavin, 2015). Another input that will be needed is a supply of filtered water to mix with the herbicide and dilute it. Diluting the herbicide is very important. By doing this herbicide is not wasted and is also not applied to the crop with too high of a concentration (Using Herbicides Safely, 2016). The reason why the water must be filtered is so that small pieces of debris or dirt does not clog the backpack sprayer and cause problems for the user. By using these cheap and easy to use methods it can take a farmers crop for good too great when harvest season comes around. To really understand the full benefit of introducing herbicide chemicals such as Barricade ll to Nepal an example will be given. If a Nepalese farmer had a 10-acre field. On average it cost about $30 to spray a hectare of wheat. The cost of wheat per ton in Nepal is currently at its lowest it has been in a long time at $161 Canadian dollars (Wheat Price Daily, 2016). In Nepal when herbicides are used the average yield is 1.4 tons of grain per hectare. As explained in part A that farmers can lose 68%–100% of their grain because of weed grown in their fields (Subedi, 2016). If a farmer happened to lose 80% of the grain production due to not spraying herbicides on his/her field and weed populations taking over and competing with the wheat they would only end up with 0.28 tons of wheat per hectare. In the end the farmer would only get 2.8 tons of wheat from the 10-acre field. He/She would have a profit of $450 Canadian Dollars. On the other hand, if a farmer was to spray his field at $30 dollars a hectare but averaged 1.4 tons of grain per hectare. He/She would end up with a net profit of $1,954 (after deducting the cost of spraying). In the end the farmer would end up with over 4 times the amount of profit. Not only would it gain profit for the farmers but it would also cut down on the back breaking work of using a hoe to get rid of the weeds. Farmers in Nepal can’t afford not to use herbicides.

References

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How do selective herbicides work? (2015). Retrieved November 26, 2016, from http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/agriculture/farm-management/chemical-use/agricultural-chemical-use/chemical-residues/managing-chemical-residues-in-crops-and-produce/how-do-selective-herbicides-work

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Raise the Bar on Your Broadleaf Weed Control. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from http://www.dupont.ca/en/products-and-services/crop-protection/cereals-protection/products/barricade.html

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Kästle-nationsonline.org, K. (2016, April 15). Agriculture and Food Security. Retrieved November 26, 2016, from http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/first.shtml

Kisielewski, P. (2015, April 14). Herbicide Storage Requirements. Retrieved November 27, 2016, from http://www.uschemicalstorage.com/news/herbicide-storage-requirements/

Nepal. (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2016, from https://www.feedthefuture.gov/country/nepal

Nationsonline.org, K. K. (2016). Nepal. Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/nepal.htm

Nepal Population. (2016, November 26). Retrieved November 26, 2016, from http://countrymeters.info/en/Nepal

Other Government Departments and Agencies: Reference List for Exporters. (2014, March 28). Retrieved November 25, 2016, from http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/export/reflist-listeref-eng.html

Prasad, S. K. (2011). Supply and demand for cereals in Nepal, 2010–2030. Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/citations/4408

Subedi, H. (n.d.). Wheat Weed Identification And Management Under Cereal … Retrieved October 17, 2016, from http://www.wscholars.com/index.php/jss/article/download/470/pdf\

Wheat Daily Price. (2016, September 30). Retrieved October 17, 2016, from http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=wheat